This difference may be due to the different modalities of body weight support, as LBPP does provide some horizontal and lateral support.
Using an LBPP box, walking in simulated Lunar gravity compared to walking in simulated Martian gravity incurs a significant increase in heart rate (P=0.077) (20).
(24) examined cardiovascular response during incremental work rate with different body weight support on cycle ergometer using LBPP chamber.
Shiota and colleagues (17) measured the movement of fluid from the legs to the neck using LBPP anti-shock trousers.
The increased lateral shift of the pelvis during the weight shifting of pedalling, combined with lumbo-pelvic musculature impairment (especially the Gmed) in transferring loads between the trunk and legs, can lead to LBPP.
Besides the position of the cyclist, the bicycle may influence the development of LBPP. Therefore proper bicycle set-up is essential for injury prevention, safety, comfort, and peak performance.
From the definition of neighborhood, the authors define, first, a local binary pattern that is invariant to any monotonic transformation of grayscale, LBPP
Previous research among non-elite runners has shown oxygen consumption to decrease as BWS is increased using a LBPP treadmill, (Figueroa et al., 2012; Grabowski, 2010; Grabowski and Kram, 2008; Hoffman and Donaghe, 2011; Kline et al., 2015; Raffalt et al., 2013; Ruckstuhl et al., 2010).
Despite reductions in metabolic cost, it has also been shown that equivalent maximal and sub-maximal oxygen consumption rates (V[O.sub.2]) can be achieved while running on LBPP treadmills by increasing treadmill velocity to offset the reduction in oxygen consumption associated with running with BWS (Gojanovic et al., 2012; Kline et al., 2015; Raffalt et al., 2013).
Simulating hypogravity using a body weight support or LBPP box has become a useful clinical tool for rehabilitation of individuals following traumatic injury, orthopedic surgery, and stroke.
For example, Grabowski (12) noted that when using an LBPP to simulate hypogravity, the results differed compared to BWS devices.
There is some concern that LBPP
increases venous return from the lower extremities and can alter cardiovascular dynamics and function.