After studying data from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) during World War II, we conceived a strategy that might reduce the number and severity of outbreaks of LBRF in day laborers, street children, and yekolotemaries in Bahir Dah.
Our hypothesis, drawn from these data, is that holding infested clothes away from hosts in plastic shopping bags will kill enough clothes lice to control LBRF in Bahir Dah and elsewhere in Ethiopia.
It is encouraging that in at least 1 part of Ethiopia, the catchment of the Gambo General Rural Hospital in southwestern Ethiopia, the number of cases of LBRF seems to have decreased during 1997-2007 (38).
Healthcare clinics in Ethiopia and elsewhere often have 200-L steel steaming drums (Stammers Serbian barrels) (Figure 1) to kill clothes lice and their eggs in infested clothes during outbreaks of LBRF. Healthcare and medical students are instructed in the steaming drum method of killing clothes lice and their eggs in clothes and on blankets, which was first reported by Hunter in 1918 (45,46).
LBRF is transmitted from person to person by the body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) and less commonly the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Figure 4-15).
TBRF tends to produce more relapses (average of three) compared to LBRF (often just one).
In LBRF, the initial episode usually lasts 5 to 7 days and is usually followed by a single, milder episode.
In previous years, several cases of LBRF
have been reported from several countries in Europe in migrants from eastern Africa (2,3,12-16).
In summary, our report emphasizes that LBRF
can be complicated by pulmonary hemorrhages associated with impaired platelet and plasmatic coagulation (10), which can be mistaken for signs of tuberculosis.
DNA was extracted from blood specimens from the 3 patients and used for molecular identification and characterization of the etiologic agent of LBRF. We used a species-specific real-time PCR for B.
We report 3 patients in Italy with LBRF who migrated from Somalia.
Because the 3 cases we observed might indicate that more migrants and refugees are infected, LBRF should be considered an emerging disease among migrants and refugees.