Strategies to restore the levels n-3 LC-PUFA
in farmed fish flesh include a washout period whereby fish oils are re-fed at higher levels following the growth period or the dietary inclusion of algal concentrates high in n-3 LC-PUFA
The fatty acids composition and the sum of SFA, MUFA, LC-PUFA
, fatty acids n-6 and n-3, and the LC-PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3ratiosin the feed are listed in Table 2.
This may indicate that not only the conversion of ALA to n-3 LC-PUFA
is a rate limiting step, but also is the conversion of EPA to DHA.
Metabolic effects may include differential oxidation of fatty acids and increased retention of LC-PUFA
as vegetable protein sources increased (Pratoomyot et al., 2010).
Among the different fatty acid classes, soybean oil contained 14.25% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 23.00% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and 62.74% PUFA, but was virtually void of any LC-PUFA
([greater than or equal to] 20:3n) (Table 2).
He cited a study supported by a trial grant from Mead Johnson in which 81 children were enrolled as infants in a double-blind, randomized trial of LC-PUFA
Fish oil is a considerable source of energy in aquaculture feed owing to its rich omega-3 (n-3) series long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA
) content including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22: 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) (Mulligan and Trushenski, 2013).
Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: life'sDHA[TM], life'sDHA plus EPA[TM], life'sARA[TM] Meg-3[R] and ROPUFA[R] Omega-3 and Omega-6 LC-PUFA
In addition, the results were further correlated with higher levels of brain DHA obtained for the PS-omega-3 group (Figure 2), when compared with different treatments, suggesting that phospholipids are a more effective supplementation platform for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA
) for the brain.
Whether these benefits can be achieved by both alpha linolenic acid* (ALA, 18:3n-3) and n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA
) is debatable, according to researchers.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA
) are important components of the organism for the maintenance of normal cell function and for increasing the body's resistance (Farrell et al., 1988).
EPA and DHA are found in fatty fish, which naturally produce this kind of fat to keep their cell membranes flexible--even in very cold water.