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In the current review, analytical strategies involved in the detailed componential characterization of biooil produced from LCBM in recent years were reviewed.
Pyrolysis is a process of thermal decomposition of dry LCBM in absence of [O.sub.2], leading to the cleavage of chemical bonds for the production of biooil, biochar, and gas, with controlled conditions, that is, programmed temperature, residence time, and pressure and with/without a catalyst .
Catalytic pyrolysis of LCBM with various catalysts, including activated carbon [93-95], and alkaline catalysts [96, 97], for the production of biooil, has been carried out .
GCxGC with higher resolution over GC has been successfully used for the separation of components in various biooils produced from different LCBMs. However, the identification of individual species is a difficult task since comprehensive databases and retention time libraries are not widely available.
Due to the advantages of FTIR analysis, it can be used in biooil analysis for understanding molecular characteristics, evaluation of upgrading process, judging the further utilization, distinguishing biooils from different LCBMs, and so forth.
Traditionally, there are two ways to isolate lignin from other components in LCBM, so-called degradation processes: one is to extract cellulose and hemicellulose leaving most of the lignin as solid residue, and the other one is to extract lignin by using fractionation methods leaving the other components.
MWL is produced via the extraction of milled sample particles from LCBM with a neutral organic solvent (e.g., 1,4-dioxane) under mild conditions to remove other components.
The structure of CEL is similar to MWL, and it is more representative of total lignin in LCBM than in MWL.
In the kraft process, LCBM particles are emerged in an aqueous solution containing NaOH and [Na.sub.2]S.
Organosolv process typically results in more than 50% lignin removal from LCBM through cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate bonds and [beta]-O-4 linkages.
Traditionally, in the acidolysis process, lignin is extracted from LCBM sample with 1,4-dioxane containing hydrochloric acid under room temperature.
ILs have the capability to disrupt various linkages between the components in the LCBM by the formation of several types of interactions such as hydrogen bond, dipoledipole, and van der Waals interactions .
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