The coefficients of the household size for both LUWG and LCWG were significant and positive.
The coefficients of certified seed for both LUWG and LCWG were positive and significant, suggesting a positive effecton wheat yield.
The production and dissemination of latest knowledge is essential to validate the efficiency at farm level and to make the agriculture sector multifunctional (Labarthe, 2009).In our analyses, the coefficients of extension services for both LUWG and LCWG were significant and positive, suggesting satisfactory performance of Punjab's agriculture extension department.
However, in rural Pakistan diversified source of income is generally limited because ofcredit constraints,geographic characteristics and lack of technical expertise (Reardon et al., 2000).In our analyses,the coefficients of off-farm income for both LUWG and LCWG groups were significant and positivewhich indicate that those farm households who had diversified source of income other than crop production were technically more efficient.These findings are similar to the study of Tipi et al.
The variable distance to lenderswas significant for LCWG, while non-significant for LUWG.