The LESP consists of forty items with four possible responses per item: agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or disagree.
The LESP was individually administered to each participant in his or her place of employment in a quiet location free of distractions.
The mean of the 416 participants who completed the LESP was 95.
The psychometric properties of the LESP were evaluated in several ways.
A common factor analysis (principal factors) with varimax rotation was used to determine the structure underlying the LESP.
The LESP items and their loadings for each of the four factors can be seen in Table 1.
The results of Experiment 1 indicate that the LESP is a reliable and valid instrument to assess parental enabling.
After developing and validating the LESP, three primary questions remained: (a) whether parents of at-risk and honors students differed in their enabling attitudes, (b) whether at-risk and honors students differed in their locus of control, and (c) whether there was a relationship between students' locus of control and their parents' enabling attitudes.
In addition to the measure of locus of control, the LESP was given to each of the participating parents.
The LESP was individually administered to the ninth-grade students' parents in their homes.
Lastly, there was a significant relationship between the students' locus of control scores and the parents' scores on the LESP, r(175) = .