The same multiplier set is applied to compute the turbulence data for the EIVC and LIVC modes (Figures 3 and 4, respectively).
The test case refers to Engine A operated at 5500 rpm with FL and LIVC valve strategies (Figures 16 and 17).
This year, a greater number of domestic funds also participated in the conference, which included LIVC
, Fatima Ventures, TPL e-Ventures, i2i Ventures, Sarmayacar and Artistic Ventures.
The left common iliac vein assembled normally at L5 level then ascended on behalf of the LIVC along the left side of the aorta until the hilum of the left kidney.
Magnetic resonance venogram demonstrating the absence of common iliac anastomosis to form the left inferior vena cava (LIVC) and the termination of the left renal vein in the left inferior vena cava.
A thorough analytic study of the N[O.sub.x] reduction effect of Miller cycles with LIVC can be found in Wang et al.
The cam shafts under investigation are a standard Otto cycle cam shaft, a Miller cycle cam shaft with late intake valve closing (LIVC), and a Miller cycle cam shaft with early intake valve closing (EIVC) and reduced valve lift.
The reduction of the maximum engine load with increasing engine speed can be explained by the reduction of the Miller effect with LIVC
due to the inertia of the air mass.
Therefore, in this paper, gasoline/PODE dual-fuel RCCI load extension has been conducted using LIVC timing, intake boosting and EGR strategy.
Fig.2 shows representative valve profiles for different late intake valve closing timings from the experiments, Fig.3 shows the effective compression ratio as a function of various LIVC timings, which was calculated with a GT-Power model for this engine.
Lately, with the availability of various valve train solutions such as simpler cam phasing mechanisms to fully variable valve trains, the use of EIVC and LIVC
concepts have become more usual.
Furthermore, improvements in fuel efficiency and reductions in emissions have also been achieved by implementing late intake valve closing (LIVC