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It states that the fuel energy fumep is transformed into work on the piston with an efficiency [mu], and then mechanical losses lmep are subtracted to come to a net output work bmep.
It can be put into words as the fuel energy fumep is transformed into work on the piston with an efficiency [mu], and then mechanical losses lmep are subtracted to come to a net output work bmep.
The loss mean effective pressure lmep is primarily related to the mechanical losses in the engine, the friction plus the pumping at zero indicated load, with a smaller contribution from the fuel that burns late or not at all.
[P.sub.f] =[[P.sub.b] + [1/2] Lmep [Dn.sub.t]]/[kappa] (7)
where [kappa] is the combined energy conversion marginal efficiency of engine, torque converter and gearbox, and Lmep is the mechanical loss mep for the combined powertrain.
The loss term for engines was found to be typically lmep ~ 1.6 bar, to which need to be added a few tenths for accessory loads and another few tenths for transmission friction, for a total of about 2 bar.
As discussed above, this powertrain has internal losses of 2 bar lmep, and a marginal efficiency of 0.40.
At 2 bar output, and with internal losses of 2 bar lmep, half the fuel is used to cover the internal losses and half goes toward generating the output.
However, this does not mean that LMEP, ICIP, or CRP will be repealed.
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