The clinical manifestations and functional outcomes of ALS patients were a comprehensive reflection of UMN, LMN
, and extramotor area involvement; however, the complexity of the phenotypes lies not only in the damage of the multisegmental neuraxis, but also in the dynamic changes to the extensively engaged neural network and multiple compensatory mechanisms. ALSFRS-R is the only validated clinical indicator for the evaluation of disability in ALS patients, but the absolute ALSFRS-R scores upon diagnosis are highly variable and thereafter decline at varying but relatively stable rates. Therefore, patients who undergo MRI with the same ALSFRS-R score at a given time might have been in different stages of disease and might progress variably.
Nerve impulses are normally relayed from the UMN to interneurons in the spinal cord and then through the LMN
to muscles ; UMN damage and the loss of this relay information can impact functions such as walking, breathing, and swallowing.
The major difference between LMNS
and SOF is that each single IoT network can exchange information with other IoT network.
Deterioration of the UMNs and LMNs
typically progresses relatively rapidly, and the average survival time from the onset of symptoms for patients with ALS is 27-43 months (Feldman, 2008).
These stretch receptors begin a stretch reflex that passes through a synapse in the spinal cord to LMNs
and then back out to muscle.
These tracts go through the spinal cord to LMNs
and influence movement in the extremities.
According to the El Escorial criteria and its revisions, diagnosis of ALS relies on identification of UMN and LMN
signs within different body regions defined as bulbar, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar, respectively.
As a result, rapid movement or pain signals can cause LMNs
to fire, resulting in a spasm.
Significant differences were noted in sex ratio, onset age, ALSFRS-R score, upper motor neuron limb signs, pure lower motor neuron (LMN
) bulbar signs, FVC, and survival time between IBP and PBP.
react without limit or inhibition, causing uncontrolled muscle contractions.
Given its safety and convenience, EMG of RA represents a good method to evaluate the involvement of respiratory muscles in early stage ALS, aside from lesions in the LMNs
of the thoracic spinal cord.
The absence of differences in F wave persistence between the P and NP groups supported the view that F wave persistence was closely related to the number of functional LMNs
and indicates LMN