By producing nine maps based on the GIS techniques and spatial analyses, this study not only contributes to the knowledge of users' check-in behavior, but also corroborates the interaction between LMSNs and users' creation of social space.
This finding can add to the framework of LMSNs in that both geographic proximity and social identity can shape social space.
The finding suggests that in addition to social identities, politics may be another factor in mediating the relationship between LMSNs and space creation.
The finding about gender differences in the current study validates the theoretical framework of LMSNs where users' demographic information determines the way they use location-based mobile devices to create social space (De Souza e Silva and Frith, 2010).
This study corroborates the validity of the theoretical framework of LMSNs and suggests that users create social space and build social relations through check-in on location-based social media.