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LMWF Mitigates Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats.
After administration of LMWF (100 mg/kg/day) for 3 months, these parameters in diabetic animals were significantly improved.
To confirm the protective effect of LMWF on left ventricular dysfunction, we further performed heart perfusion by Langendorff system to evaluate left ventricular function at both baseline and isoprenaline- (ISO-) stimulated levels.
LMWF Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis.
LMWF Inhibits Oxidative Stress by Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and PKC Expression.
In order to explore whether LMWF has any effect on the altered expression of PKC[beta], the expression of PKC in cardiac tissues from each group was detected by Western blotting.
Finally, the inhibitory effect of LMWF on the production of ROS, PKC[beta] overexpression, and cell apoptosis were examined in cultured rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 that were challenged with high glucose (25 mM D-glucose).
The present study demonstrates that prolonged treatment of type 2 diabetic GK rats with LMWF produces a protective effect against cardiac dysfunction.
Spontaneous diabetic GK rats represent type 2 diabetic phenotype and may develop DCM after several weeks ; thus we adopted GK rats to explore the effect of LMWF on cardiac dysfunction.
In addition, LMWF also mitigated the enhanced expression of PKC[beta] in diabetic rats.
This criticism is intended to guide readers toward a fact-based recognition of the inherent limitations of MALDI/SELDI profiling of the LMWF for biomarker discovery and to serve as an instrument to encourage others to strike out on their own road.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: MS, mass spectrometry; LMWF, low molecular weight fragmentome; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem MS; FIBA 5909, 5909-Da internal fragment of the fibrinogen a chain spanning residues 576-629.
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