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The above-mentioned key factors govern also the LNAPL partitioning in the residual phase (adsorbed to solids particles due to capillary forces) and free phase (a liquid separated phase immiscible in water) that represent the 99% of LNAPL in the subsoil [1, 7, 8].
With time, the different conceptual models developed to estimate saturations of LNAPL in the subsoil and free LNAPL specific volume are described in many papers (e.g., [10-18]).
and Zima, L.: 2000, Possibilities of integrated geophysical techniques to detect LNAPL plumes in abandoned soviet military areas: case history from the cretaceous of Bohemia.
The earlier plan relied on traditional cleanup approaches to extract LNAPL from the groundwater at the site.
Residual LNAPL typically occupies 10-50% of the available pore space (Chatzis et al, 1986).
(2006) Model tank electrical resistivity characterization of LNAPL migration in a clayey-sand formation.
Hydrodynamic modelling of pollution with LNAPL generated by waste dump from metal working industry, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 8: 43-48.
Field study of LNAPL remediation by in-situ cosolvent flooding.
(2012) presented transport model and a field-scale three-dimensional numerical flow to simulate the destiny and transport of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from six source regions of light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs).
The two most common classes are a) NAPLs composed of fuel hydrocarbons that are lighter (LNAPLs) than water and, thus, more easily detected, because they tend to remain within the unsaturated zone or capillary fringe areas of an aquifer; and b) organic solvent or dense NAPLs (DNAPLs) that tend to migrate deep into formations, becoming entrapped in irregular finger-like structures or pooled on low permeability strata.
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- LN Tolstoi