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Chinese firms have by far the largest proportion invested on capital expenditure (CE_TA) and the largest average firm size measured in natural logarithm of total assets (LNTA), while Malaysian firms as a country group are at the opposite extreme.
Similarly, dps, geps, eps, and lnta exhibit significant ranks differences.
Bank size is the total assets' natural log (LNTA) and leverage is equal to long term debt over total assets.
CF is the cash flow to total assets ratio, DIVPOS is a dummy equal to one when the firm pays cash dividends, TLTD is the long-term debt to total assets ratio, LNTA is the natural log of total assets, ISG is the firm's industry sales growth, and SG is the firm sales growth, both calculated with respect to the previous year.
Table 2 show credit risk (CR) has a negative relationship with MGT, LNTA.GDP Lower efficiency in managing earning assts would probably lead to higher credit risk; size and capital are risk- related as smaller capitalized bank tend to have lower capacity to absorb losses.
DisclDPF (%) Discl20F (%) LnTA Notes: Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5% significance, there was no evidence of non-normality of the frequency distribution of the variables.
Our model accordingly controls for client size (LNTA), complexity (RECINV, SQRTSEG, and FOROPS), financial health (LIQ, LOSS, and ROA), risk (BM, ICW, and GC) and auditor type and tenure (BIG4 and AUDINIT).
(8) We measured size by both LNTA (log of total assets) and EMPLOY (the number of employees).
PAT/sales = [alpha] + [beta] LnNS + [beta] LnTA + [epsilon] (7)
Set up in 2001, and supported principally by UNESCO, the Lao National Tourism Administration (LNTA) and the governments of New Zealand and Japan, the project has since won a Tourism for Tomorrow Awards commendation and was shortlisted for the Equator Prize for success in reducing poverty through conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Firm Size: Firm size may be proxied by the natural logarithm of sales (LnSales), the natural logarithm of total assets (LnTA), the number of employees, or quit ratio (QR) (Titman and Wessels (1988)).
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