For each of the 22 soil-based ecosystem services (MEA 2005), participants assigned a point score reflecting their assessment of the importance of the service to sustainable policy development and the current and minimally required LOSU of biochar soil amendment interactions with ecosystem services.
However, the effects of biochar on the rhizosphere microbiome remain uncertain meaning that there is an important gap between the current and required LOSU's.
Figure 2 shows soil properties or processes assigned to research priorities anticipated to close the LOSU gap across the themes.
Firstly, one of the most common recommendations to close the LOSU gap was to upscale experiments and move from short-term, laboratory-controlled conditions to long-term, field experiments (ideally even at catchment scale).
2016) and the LOSU regarding how and to what extent this may occur is close to zero.
Finally, an aspect of the LOSU concept is the representability of environmental and management factors.