LPBFLake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation
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[38] are among the researchers who investigated the microstructure and texture of IN718, processed by LPBF. In all these studies, the matrix mainly consists of y grains.
Prior to the LPBF processing, the powder morphology and chemistry were investigated.
The tensile samples were built in an LPBF machine (SLM 280 HL from SLM Solutions, installed 2014), with process parameters for IN718 powder as supplied by SLM Solutions [43].
The density of the specimen is related to the energy in the LPBF process [44], with the energy per area (J x [m.sup.-2]) defined as [E.sub.A] = P/vd, where P is the laser power (W), v is the scanning velocity (m x [s.sup.-1]), and d is the hatch spacing (m).
The tensile specimens were not machined after LPBF, as the goal of the study is to assess and classify the behaviour of LPBF components with as-built surfaces.
The build direction is along Y0 in the figure, leaving the LPBF layers perpendicular to Y0.
The tensile properties of the IN718 specimens manufactured by LPBF, averaged over all the build orientations, are shown in Table 8.
The presented anisotropic material data, and the general methodology to obtain these, provide a basis for improved numerical modelling (finite element analysis) of the mechanical response of components produced by LPBF without postproduction machining.
For instance, the presence of Al-rich particles (Figure 6) in the powder may result in anomalies and, therefore, proper cleaning of the build envelope, and powder-handling units play an important role in LPBF processing.
In Figure 10(b), it was also illustrated that LPBF is a directional processing route that influences the grain structure, the grain morphology, and the crystallographic texture of the material.
(i) A method has been demonstrated for obtaining anisotropic (transverse isotropic) elastic constants for material processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF).
(ii) Extensive tensile testing of a single specimen geometry built with different orientations shows that the LPBF process induces mechanical anisotropy.