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In spite of the strong effect on FURO + CAP-induced NaCl intake, moxonidine, like methysergide or the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide (20,40), produced no effect on water or NaCl intake when injected alone into the LPBN in satiated animals not treated with FURO + CAP (38).
Bilateral injections of moxonidine into the LPBN also produced no change in the ingestion of 0.06 M sucrose (38) or food intake induced by 14 or 24 h of food deprivation (41), suggesting that the activation of [[alpha].sub.2]-adrenoceptors in the LPBN modulates specifically sodium intake.
LPBN [[alpha].sub.2]-adrenoceptor activation facilitates sodium intake in hyperosmotic rats
Although moxonidine injected into the LPBN of satiated rats produces no effect on water or 0.3 M NaCl intake (38), [[alpha].sub.2]-adrenoceptor activation with moxonidine injections into the LPBN induces an unexpectedly strong ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl in addition to water in a two-bottle test in rats with an increase in plasma osmolarity [induced by intragastric (ig) load of 2 M NaCl as 2 mL/rat] (43).
The effects of ([[alpha].sub.2]-adrenoceptor activation with moxonidine injections into the LPBN on sodium intake in hyperosmotic rats are similar to those of a previous study (45) that showed that bilateral injections of the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide into the LPBN, combined with an increase in plasma osmolarity, also induced ingestion of hypertonic NaCl in a two-bottle test.
Sodium taste reactivity in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN
In order to test if LPBN-inhibitory mechanisms restrain sodium intake during the consumatory phase of the behavior, we investigated whether moxonidine injected into the LPBN alters the hedonic value or palatability of sodium during a taste reactivity test.
FURO + CAP-treated rats that received injections of vehicle or moxonidine into the LPBN showed similar enhanced ingestive responses and decreased aversive responses to intraoral 0.3 M NaCl if they have no access to water and saline (50).
Many neurons in the caudal or mNTS and AP project to nuclei within the LPBN (26).
Besides increasing water and sodium intake, bilateral injections of moxonidine into the LPBN reduce the diuretic and natriuretic responses to increased plasma osmolality produced by ig 2 M NaCl.
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