The purpose was to demonstrate that the structural and geotechnical capacities and resistance of the foundation elements are sufficient to support design loads specified under the current AASHTO LRFD
. Bridge design specifications, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
The objective of the calibration of codes based on a LRFD
format is to provide optimal partial factors for the design of a type of structure, which lead to designs as close as possible to the code objective.
"Prior to the LRFD
Bridge Specification revisions, engineers were limited in their designs to only include reinforcing steel up to 75 ksi for bridge structures," notes Russo.
According to the current load and resistance factors design (LRFD
) used in the USA and some other countries, the design values of compressive forces by Eq.
Lazarte, Proposed Specifications for LRFD
Soil-Nailing Design and Construction, NCHRP Report 701, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
Current provisions for lightweight concrete in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' LRFD
[Load and Resistance Factor Design] Bridge Design Specifications are based on research from the 1960s.
Kim  proposed new load combinations for the load and resistance factor design (LRFD
) to design typical IABs, by developing the nominal IAB response prediction models and establishing IAB's response statistics using Monte Carlo simulation.
Aramid fiber-reinforced (ARFP) bars may successfully replace conventional steel and prestressing strand, providing sufficient strength per AASHT0 LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications (2010), and considerable deformability when compared to the conventional system, say Shobeir Pirayeh Gar, Stefan Hurlebaus, John Mander, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, and Monique Head, Morgan State University, Baltimore, in their paper, Comparative Experimental Performance of Bridge Deck Slabs with APRP and Steel Prestressed Precast Panels.
Areas covered include reliability-based design, LRFD
concepts, in situ soil testing, geotechnical design of combined spread footing, design of drilled shafts, and stability analysis and design of slopes.