Critical questions address the transformative impact of LRWs, their practical facilitation and assessment, as well as research policies to promote transformative research:
6-7) portrays past and current developments within the science system and places LRWs within a bigger picture including mode 1, 2 and transformative research.
Learning: LRWs contribute to capacity development, new scientific insights and societal learning, building on iterations of experimentation and reflection.
The multitude of terms bears the risk of obscuring key topics addressed and potential contributions made by the different LRW approaches.
In the semantic map of LRW related to sustainability (figure 3, p.
In sum, the RwL discourse mirrors salient key debates in the broader sustainability LRW discourse.
Transdisciplinarity: There is a fundamental debate on the relation of LRW settings to transdisciplinary (td) research approaches, including questions of successful practice to realize co-creation, co-production and co-design: