In postmenopausal women, serum ln-PFOS was significantly associated with TFBMD and FNBMD; PFNA was inversely related with TFBMD, FNBMD, and LSBMD (all p < 0.05).
LSBMD was not significantly associated with any of the categorical PFAS exposures in men or in women, regardless of menopausal status.
LSBMD was not clearly associated with any of the PFASs in men or women.
(2014) reported a significant negative association between PFOS and LSBMD in premenopausal women only; however, we did not observe any significant association between PFOS and LSBMD in our sample of premenopausal women.
Some potential reasons for the discrepant relationships between PFOS and LSBMD observed in the present study and those observed by Lin et al.
At the study endpoint (T2), the following covariates were positively correlated to BMC, TBMD, and LSBMD: age (r =0.514, p = 0.002; r=0.388, p = 0.021; r =0.484; p = 0.004), duration of use of antiretrovirals (r = 0.519, p = 0.001; r =0.407, p = 0.015; r = 0.450, p = 0.008), BMI Z-score (r=0.639, p = 0.000; r=0.612, p = 0.000; r=0.615, p = 0.000), HA Z-score (r =0.600, p = 0.000; r = 0.460, p = 0.005; r=0.462, p = 0.006), total body fat (r=0.727, p = 0.000; r=0.637, p = 0.000; r=0.652, p = 0.000), and lean body mass (r=0.877, p = 0.000, r =0.679, p = 0.000, r =0.549, p = 0.001).
Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were also used to determine the predictors of BMC, TBMD Z-score, and LSBMD Z-score for both periods of the study.
However, when Z-scores of LSBMD and TBMD were compared between T1 and T2, there was no improvement in LSBMD Z-score, while the TBMD Z-score actually worsened.
After evaluation of prepubertal and pubertal children in T2, significantly higher values of BMC, TBMD and LSBMD were observed in pubertal patients compared to prepubertal patients.
In this study, HIV viral load correlated negatively with TBMD and LSBMD. DiMeglio et al.
The same study also found that 88% of osteoporotic women whose LSBMD changed significantly after 12 months on alendronate also showed a significant decrease in NTx/Cr at 4 months but only 44% for free DPD/Cr.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: RCV, reference change value; CTx and NTx, C- and N-terminal telopeptides of collagen 1, respectively; HRT, estrogen replacement therapy; DPD, deoxypyridinoline; BMD, bone mineral density; DXA, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; LSBMD, lumbar spine bone mineral density; FNBMD, femoral neck bone mineral density; and Cr, creatinine.