In the southwestern United States, LSCV, SNV, ELMCV, and MULV are principally associated with rodents of the species P.
Group I included CARV, group 2 included HUIV, group III included LSCV and MTNV, and group IV included SNV strains Convict Creek 74, Convict Creek 107, and NM H10.
ELMCV was first described in 1994 (10); LSCV was described in 2001 (11); and CARV, HUIV, and MTNV were described in 2011 (8).
The results of these analyses also indicate that M0040008, M0040059, and H0460041 are strains of ELMCV or RIOSV and that B0030008, H0460008, H0460023, and M0040049 are strains of LSCV. Accordingly, the N protein gene RNA-positive rodents in this study (Table) were infected with SNV, ELMCV, RIOSV, or LSCV.
Specific knowledge of the natural host relationships of LSCV previously was limited to LSCV RNA in 6 brush mice (P.
Laboratory confirmation of the diagnoses of most HPS cases in the United States before 2010 was based on the results of serologic assays in which ELMCV and LSCV can be highly cross-reactive with SNV (31).
Error Estimator n Mean SD LSCV(*) fixed 50 1.4 x [10.sup.5] 4.3 x [10.sup.6] LSCV adaptive 50 6.2 x [10.sup.27] 2.9 x [10.sup.29] [h.sup.ref] fixed 50 2.8 x [10.sup.9] 9.9 x [10.sup.10] [h.sup.ref] adaptive 50 1.9 x [10.sup.44] 6.5 x [10.sup.45] LSCV fixed 150 2.0 x [10.sup.3] 8.8 x [10.sup.4] LSCV adaptive 150 1.4 x [10.sup.19] 6.5 x [10.sup.20] [h.sub.ref] fixed 150 6.3 x [10.sup.5] 1.8 x [10.sup.7] [h.sub.ref] adaptive 150 2.4 x [10.sup.46] 1.1 x [10.sup.48] * LSCV = least squares cross validation.
In addition, it is important to collect location data with high precision because LSCV performs quite badly with data that are rounded (i.e., collected on a coarse grid; Silverman 1986, Chiu 1991).
The fact that the sample size and the data structure affect the degree of smoothing can result in unexpected patterns for LSCV kernel-based estimates of seasonal vs.