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of cPVB/patient 1.2 PV potential location RSPV 9 (33%) RIPV 3 (11%) LSPV 10 (37%) LIPV 5 (19%) Wide double PV potentials interval 136 [+ or -] 16ms Relation to PV firing 24 (89%) cPVB = concealed pulmonary vein bigeminy; PV = pulmonary vein; RSPV = right superior pulmonary vein; RIPV = right inferior pulmonary vein; LSPV = left superior pulmonary vein; LIPV = left inferior pulmonary vein.
Mapping and ablation were performed in 789 PVs (198 patients): 198 right superior PVs (RSPVs), 198 right inferior PVs (RIPVs), 5 right middle PVs (RMPVs), 190 left superior PVs (LSPVs), 190 left inferior PVs (LIPVs), and 8 left common trunks.
The distances between the orifice of LSPV and accessory LAA orifice was 26 mm.
They examined LAA orifice and LSPV at the same level in 64%, LAA orifice inferior to LSPV in 13% and LAA orifice superior to LSPV in 22% of specimens; consecutively 76.8%, 19.6% and 3.6% in present study.
The ridge lying between LSPV and the LAA is a critical structure during catheter ablation procedures (16) and has the potential of allowing interatrial conduction (8).
"Golden Sun Demonstration Program" is also a good example in shedding light on LSPV. In 2009, China's Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Energy Administration of the National Development and Reform Commission jointly announced the program which provides upfront subsidies for qualified demonstrative PV projects from year 2009 to 2011.
ERPD1 was calculated for RSPV, RIPV, RA, RAA, LSPV, LIPV, LA, and LAA.
The ERP and WOV were measured at LSPV, LIPV, LA, LAA, MSL, RSPV, RIPV, ARGPM, RA, and RAA at baseline levels and the end of every hour during the 3 hours pacing period.
In the control group, the ERP at RSPV, RIPV, RA, RAA, ARGPM, LSPV, LIPV, LA, LAA, and MSL was markedly shortened in the second and third hour (Figure 3).
Studies of SCN efferent projections in grass rats have documented the presence of fibers of SCN origin in the region of the LHA where ORX neurons reside (Schwartz & Smale, 2004), whereas BDA injections in the LSPV and the SCN have confirmed cell soma and fiber-fiber appositions to ORX neurons from both regions (Schwartz & Smale, 2006), which suggests that in grass rats both direct and indirect projection from the SCN are likely to contribute to phase preference.
The activation sequence and electrical conduction between LA and LSPV with vagal response
LA and PV potentials at LAA, PV-LAj and within LSPV was overlapped during sinus rhythm and separated into two potentials by pacing (cycle length, 300 ms) at LAA, PV-LAj, LSPVm and LSPVd, the even more separation was found when we paced at the distal part of the pulmonary vein (n=6).
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