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Consequently, most of the available literature seems to point out that a water salinity threshold of 5000 ppm should be considered for an effective LSWI process.
Ayirala and Yousef  presented an extensive review of the desalination technologies already available and under development for LSWI (they call the process smart water flooding).
An oil and gas industry issue, namely low salinity water injection (LSWI), was described in the attempt of identifying which technology would be better suited to address the matter; a realistic option was selected from different available nanotechnologies.
(2) The use of such membranes in the desalination process would prove essential in the "manipulation" of injection water for LSWI.
Ultimately, the desalination of water for LSWI via graphene membranes would tackle the issue of reaching a water salinity threshold--we have suggested 5000 ppm based on the current literature--for effective LSWI.
The performance of CLSWI in oil viscosity reduction, oil swelling, and wettability modification was investigated and compared to those of seawater injection (SWI), carbonated seawater injection (CWI or CSWI), and LSWI. Additionally, C[O.sub.2] storage by the solubility trapping mechanism was investigated.
First, the wettability modification effect was extracted from the LSWI experiment.
History-Matching Process: SWI and LSWI. History-matching was performed through CMOST to assess experimental oil production .
To compare the performance of CLSWI to that of other techniques, continuous SWI, LSWI, and CSWI were also modeled.
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