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the LTBT and the NPT, for example, were conditioned upon ratification by
later, but neither has ever signed or acceded to the LTBT. (90)
Indeed, if the LTBT was the turning point away from the unthinkable, the NPT was proof that the world was committed to creating a safer, more secure world.
The LTBT, Kennedy said in 1963, "is not a victory for one side -- it is a victory for mankind." This treaty, he said, "will not resolve all conflicts, or cause the Communists to forgo their ambitions, or eliminate the dangers of war.
Following the successful entry into force of the LTBT, the international community resumed discussions on a permanent, binding moratorium on all nuclear testing.
Although not legally bound to the LTBT, North Korea has still never detonated an aboveground or underwater nuclear test, thereby demonstrating the extent to which the LTBT is adhered to as an international norm, if not binding law.
The limits of the LTBT basin, at north and northeast, are coincident with a structural accident that separates the metasediments (mainly quartzites and slates) of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) defined by Lotze (1945) from the complex of migmatite, schist and granitoids of the Ossa-Morena Zone (OMZ); the northwest limit, represented by a thurst fault, is the socalled "Macico Calcario Estremenho" (MCE) consisting of Jurassic limestone overlaid by siliciclastic sediments dated from Cretaceous up to Miocene; at south and southeast the Tertiary deposits have discontinued limits with the Ossa-Morena Zone (OMZ).
During the 1963 debate on ratification of the LTBT, the Joint Chiefs of Staff expressed concern that the treaty would lead to "euphoria" and cause the United States to let down its guard against the Soviet Union.
The negotiation process leading up to successful conclusion of the LTBT in 1963 is a good illustration of Kennedy's informal leadership style.
The rapid negotiation of the LTBT, accomplished largely through the forceful leadership of the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, demonstrates the benefits of breaking out specific elements of the problem that are ripe for resolution.
The Kennedy Administration sought a CTBT; when that proved nonnegotiable, it achieved the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) in 1963, which bans nuclear tests in the atmosphere, under water, and in space.
* the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion, including in outer space.
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