Observational evidence confirms that policy-driven LULCC impacts convection, cloud cover, near-surface atmospheric moisture content, precipitation, temperatures, and long-term temperature trends in many parts of world, including the Amazonia, the northern Great Plains of the United States, India, and Southeast Asia (Marshall et al.
An array of national LULCC policies, international trade, treaties, and protocols has direct effects on land use and land cover, with important biogeophysical and biogeochemical impacts on the climate system.
The approaches and priorities are diverse with different LULCC and climate outcomes (Rittenhouse and Rissman 2012).
Despite the recognition of both the biogeophysical and biogeochemical climate impacts of LULCC by the scientific community, a major weakness of international protocols is that they do not directly address biogeophysical impacts.
In short, these diverse national and international policies and the subsequent shaping and/or reshaping of land use and land cover complicates efforts to mitigate the LULCC impacts on climate.
As with the approval of many other international treaties or protocols (e.g., trade agreements), incentives that lead to the reduction of negative impacts of LULCC on climate and that include clear economic benefits should be identified as priority actions at the national level.
I) Improve understanding of the connections between LULCC and weather and climate (Fig.
a) Improves our current understanding of how LULCC and atmospheric interactions are linked at local to global scales.
Past changes could be identified in LULCC that are attributable to changes in climate in order to project future changes in LULCC that could result from changes in climate.
To provide input to climate and meteorological models, LULCC forecast models must be spatially explicit, provide a means to parameterize key land--atmosphere interactions, and provide scenario-based forecasts for 50-100 years.
Because the SRES story lines were developed for use by climate change modelers to develop projections of future climate, they represent a reasonable starting point for a LULCC and climate assessment in the United States.
The representative concentration pathways concept should improve the consistency of the links between LULCC by explicitly specifying sectoral emissions and air pollutants (van Vuuren et al.