[sup] Cases with any one of the following conditions were excluded: (1) lack of ability to communicate, presence of LUTD secondary to cause other than MS (such as urinary tract infections, drugs interfering with detrusor function, urogenital prolapse in females, benign prostatic hyperplasia in men, urethral stricture), (2) a history of diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, or neurological diseases other than MS, and (3) a history of urethral, bladder, prostate, or pelvis surgery.
For MS patients, LUTD is sustained by a complex alteration of the neurological control of the detrusor-sphincter function, resulting in detrusor over activity, detrusor hypocontractility, and/or DSD.
The result of our urodynamic parameters is more solid proof of diversity of LUTD and urinary symptoms in patients with MS.
The question assessing the self-sufficiency of the physicians revealed that only 38.7% (n = 36) believed they were competent in the evaluation of children with LUTD. Fifteen of the respondents (16.2%) felt moderately adequate and 42 (45.1%) reported they were personally insufficient.
Finally, the self-assurance of the physicians in the evaluation of the children with LUTD is critically insufficient.
LUTD and daytime lower urinary tract conditions are very common among children.
During the diagnosis of LUTD, a noninvasive stepwise approach is recommended.
Standard urotherapy is defined as the nonsurgical and nonpharmacological treatment of functional LUTD in children .
Therefore, regardless of the type of the LUTD, this bladder training programme is considered to be mandatory before starting any specific interventions.