The results show that the four LVTAs had an upper frequency higher than 1 Hz.
All important error sources related to measurement with LVTAs were identified as follows:
The error due to calibration reference remains constant and dominant with regard to the mean speed for all four LVTAs, while the uncertainty due to the remaining error sources increase with the increase of the mean speed (except for the uncertainty due to conversion and reproducibility).
1998b), new updated requirements for the characteristics of LVTAs were developed and suggested for inclusion in future standards.
This is important information, especially when measurements with LVTAs are used for validation of CFD predictions.
Therefore, the maximum absolute expanded uncertainty in determination of DR, based on measurements with LVTAs that comply with the requirement specified in Table 1, can be defined as [+ or -]5% (see Figure 11).
The static calibration of LVTAs is the most important factor for accurate measurement of mean speed indoors, while, with regard to the standard deviation of speed, the errors due to directional sensitivity, dynamic response, calibration reference, and air temperature fluctuations are substantial.
Requirements for LVTAs that will decrease the uncertainty of low-velocity measurements and improve the accuracy of indoor environment assessment are suggested for inclusion in future standards.