LVVDLeft Ventricular Volume in Diastole
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Cardiac systolic function was reflected by ejection fraction (EF), fraction shortening (FS), and left ventricular (LV) volumes at end-diastolic and end-systolic phases (LVVd and LVVs, resp.).
Stroke volume (SV) or "left ventricular diastolic volume (LVVd) minus left ventricular systolic volume (LVVs)" and ejection fraction (EF) or "stroke volume divided by LVVd" were evaluated [26, 27].