If confirmed, several lwIP API functions are called sequentially to transmit the stored data over the Ethernet connection.
Unlike the serial data processed by interrupt handlers, data received from the Ethernet interface are processed by lwIP callback functions.
It is not the lwIP but the application that is responsible for handling the error appropriately via the callback function.
As mentioned above, the data received from the Ethernet interface are processed by the lwIP callback functions.
The lwIP also includes Nagle's algorithm in the implementation of TCP.
To this end, Nagle's algorithm included in the lwIP needs to be disabled for normal operation of the converter.
The paper introduced an implementation of a configurable Serial-to-Ethernet converter using the lwIP stack and a 32-bit microcontroller.