First, hourly time series of the latent heat flux
(LEEBM) was estimated for a period of five years (2011-2015), and then the estimated hourly time series was compared to in situ latent heat flux
(LEin_situ) measured through direct micrometeorological eddy covariance technique (EC).
The soil and canopy temperatures constrain the sensible heat fluxes, net radiation (RN), and soil heat flux G with the added initial estimate of canopy latent heat flux
(L[E.sub.C]) or transpiration based on either the Priestley-Taylor (PT), Penman-Monteith (PM), or light-use efficiency (LUE) parameterization (Kustas and Norman 1999; Colaizzi et al.
Urban surface stored much more heat than rural surface during the daytime because of low latent heat flux
and high heat capacity, which is later released as more intense heat flux from the surface at night, leading to the nightly urban warming (Jun et al., 2017).
Reanalysis data include CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) land surface temperature, soil moisture, latent heat flux
, and surface evaporation, as well as NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) soil moisture data.
To estimate evapotranspiration, the energy balance closure equation is used as LE + H = Rn - G, where LE is the latent heat flux
(evapotranspiration), H is the sensible heat flux, Rn is the net radiation, and G is the soil heat flux.
The flux tower measurements were obtained by converting the latent heat flux
observed every 30 min from the tower using the eddy covariance method to measure directly the vertical fluxes of heat, water vapor, and C[O.sub.2] between the surface and atmosphere.
The latent heat flux
associated with this phase change is important for assessing the surface energy balance during the soil drying [10-12].
The evapotranspiration (ET, mm [d.sup.-1]) was calculated by dividing the latent heat flux
(MJ [m.sup.-2] [d.sup.-1]) by the latent heat of vaporization (MJ [kg.sup.-1]), according to Lima et al.
The current evapotranspiration (ETc), given in mm, was obtained every 10 minutes using only positive values of the latent heat flux
(LE) between the surface and the atmosphere, converted to equivalent level, in the interval between 6:00 h and 18:00 h, corresponding to the day period (Rn-G>0).
(2003), the way energy is partitioned between latent heat flux
and sensible heat flux changes surface fluxes and therefore the climate.
Among the new relevant initiatives are as follow: Kara  obtained the latent heat flux
coefficients and the sensible ones and also the drag coefficient on the basis of wind speed and the difference between the sea and air temperature which are of a significant precision and can be applied to different areas.
Monthly wind stress, surface and upper wind, wind vorticity, sea level air pressure (SLP), surface temperature (Ts), latent heat flux
(evaporation), specific humidity, and precipitable water are obtained from the coupled forecast system (hereafter, CFS ).