On one hand, much has been written about: (a) contemporary theories of human learning and their implications for education and instructional design (e.g., Driscoll, 2005; Schunk, 2012); (b) learner-centered psychological principles (APA, 1997) and examples of learner-centered instructional strategies (e.g., problem-based learning); (c) the virtues of experiential learning (e.g., Dewey, 1938; Kolb, 1984; Lindsey & Berger, 2009) and educating students in a manner that is consistent with what [science, technology, engineering and mathematics] professionals do in real life; and (d) the need to foster creativity and innovative thinking (Florida, 2002).
Perhaps the principles of constructivist learning that separate it from behavioral, cognitive, and neurobiological theories of human learning are best synthesized by the APA (1997) who list learner-centered psychological principles related to (a) cognitive and meta-cognitive, (b) motivational and affective, (c) developmental and social factors, and (d) individual differences.
(1998).The research base for APA's learner-centered psychological principles
. In N.
The last section comprises learning resources and planning instruments including learner-centered psychological principles
, sample teaching goals by Bloom levels, and Grasha-Reichmann student learning style scales, among other materials.
Presidential Task Force on Psychology in Education, Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association/Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory, 1993), p.
The fourteen learner-centered psychological principles
are arranged into four categories: (1) cognitive and metacognitive factors; (2) motivational and affective factors; (3) developmental and social factors; and (4) individual differences factors.
To these, I include the American Psychological Association's (APA) Learner-centered Psychological Principles (Lambert & McCombs, 1998; Marshall & McCombs, 1995).
Learner-centered psychological principles: Guidelines for the teaching of educational psychology in teacher education programs.
The power and influence of building relationships and honoring learning diversity are suggested by findings from a study grounded in the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
APA Board of Educational Affairs (1997) Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform.