Rosenman, "Electron-beam-induced domain poling in LiNbO3
for two-dimensional nonlinear frequency conversion," Applied Physics Letters, vol.
The frequency quadrupler (four times the input frequency) is produced by using carrier suppression modulation scheme in LiNbO3
MZM to transmit a data rate of 2.5 Gbps for a distance of 40 km through a single mode fiber.
Ida, "Tunable filters using ultrawide-band surface acoustic wave resonator composed of grooved Cu electrode on LiNbO3
," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.
In this study a concrete surface coated with LiNbO3
is used as a photocatalyst that can absorbs light and using that energy, it can chemically convert CO 2 and water into formic acid and oxygen.
Various techniques have been developed, such as the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber , the use of four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) , and the optical frequency up-conversion using an external modulator, such as LiNbO3
" Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Energy and Thermal Field Evolution During Second Harmonic Generation in Periodically Poled Linbo3
Crystals," Applied of Physics Letters, Vol.87, 131101.
Shimizu, "Bending vibrator consisting of a LiNbO3
plate with a ferroelectric inversion layer," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.
Wang, suggest LiTaO3 and LiNbO3
may have potential as compact source of electrical power.
The high frequency range is formed the up-link conversion by a modulator known as a LiNbO3
crystal which is modulated by a high frequency generator, then the required energy can be transmitted then received by earth station.
(2) LN modulator: LiNbO3
. A device that converts an electrical data signal into an optical data stream via the electro-optic effect of a LiNbO3
WE1B-5: Theoretical and Experimental Results of Ultra Wide Band and Arbitrary Band Width Ladder Type SAW Filters Using Ultra-high Coupling Zero TCF SiO2/Y-X LiNbO3