We did not model a difference in mortality among comparators, therefore both AR101 and avoidance alone resulted in 28.69 life years gained
and there was no gain in overall survival for AR101.
A commonly used measure of utility is quality adjusted life year (QALY), which is calculated by estimating life years gained
from a treatment or therapy and then weighting each year to reflect the quality of one's life during the year.
"Ovarian screening reduced the 10-year mortality by 37% and produced 416 life years gained
For each smoker in the bottom income group, the average life years gained
from cessation was 5.1 times that of the top group (1.46 versus 0.23 years).
Moreover, the Lancet Commission on Investing in Health estimated that between 2000 and 2011, about 24 per cent of the growth in full income in low-income and middle-income countries resulted from the value of additional healthy life years gained
. In South Asia, the annual value of the change in mortality was equivalent to 2.9 per cent of the average income during the period 2000 to 2011, which was almost half the size of the value of the increase in GDP.
The technical partner selected for this work will be expected to develop methods to estimate HIV prevalence, incidence, AIDS deaths and other key outputs (e.g., ART coverage among all infected individuals, ART coverage, PMTCT coverage, MTCT transmission rates, life years gained
due to ART and PMTCT) at the most granular geographic level determined to be appropriate depending on data availability in a country.
Overstating the symptom burden in successfully treated TURP patients overestimates the quality-adjusting life years gained
by patients in the dutasteride and combination groups who avoid surgery.
The number of life years gained
(LYG) by monovalent vaccination was 2.316 (95% Cl: 2.240-2.392) and 2.972 (95% Cl: 2.6773.267) in children with the pentavalent vaccine.
It was predicted that, per 1 000 men of all ages followed for their entire lives, annual screening of men between the ages of 55 and 69 years would result in 9 fewer deaths from prostate cancer (28% reduction), 14 fewer men receiving palliative therapy (35% reduction), and a total of 73 life years gained
(average 8.4 years per prostate cancer death avoided).
In QALYs, the number of life years gained
is weighted by an index of utility, which acts as an exchange rate between the quantity and quality of life.
The model made the extrapolation of these efficacy data for effectiveness outcomes: number of life years gained
and number of quality-adjusted life years gained
Another limitation is that the estimates of life years gained