tuberculosis Indo Oceanic (lineage 1) 44 44 Beijing/East Asian (lineage 2
) 42 42 East African Indian (lineage 3) 46 46 European American (lineage 4) 18 18 ([double dagger]) Lineage 4 sublineages Ghana (4.1) 12 12 X-type (4.1.1) 45 45 Haarlem (220.127.116.11) 45 45 Ural (4.2.1) 19 19 Tur (18.104.22.168) 25 25 LAM (4.3) 37 37 S-type (22.214.171.124) 45 45 Uganda (4.6.1) 18 18 Cameroon (126.96.36.199) 32 32 West African 1 (lineage 5) 13 13 West African 2 (lineage 6) 11 11 M.
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Lineage 2 has been detected in Africa and several parts of Europe, lineage 3 (Rabensburg virus) has been isolated only in the Czech Republic, and lineage 4 has been reported from Russia (3).
are as follows for the polyprotein genes/polyproteins: WNV-Uu-LN-AT-2013 (KJ831223), lineage 1a (AF404756/AAM81752), lineage 1b (D00246/BAA00176), lineage 1c (DQ256376/ABC40712), lineage 2 (DQ116961/AAZ91684), lineage 3 (AY765264/AAW81711), lineage 4 (FJ159129/ACH99530), lineage 6 (Spain) (GU047875/ADD69956), lineage 7 (Koutango virus) (EU082200/ABW76844), lineage 8 (KJ131502/AHV83443), Usutu virus (AY453411/AAS59402).
Lineage 2 contains isolates from west, central, and eastern Africa and Madagascar.
The WNV sequence from Iran (KJ486150) was grouped into lineage 2 and had 99% identity with the 358-bp region of WNV strain ArB3573/82 from the Central African Republic.
Lineage 2 strains have been identified in humans and horses with febrile and neurologic disease in southern Africa and Madagascar (7) and recently emerged in central Europe causing encephalitis in birds, humans, and horses (7,8).
All cases detected by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) belonged to lineage 2, and 70% of cases were fatal or resulted in the horse being euthanized (10).
Lineage 1 strains are the most widespread, found in Africa, Europe, Asia, Australasia ("Kunjin virus"), and America, while lineage 2
strains are mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar.
The virus isolated from these birds, sparrow hawks, was WNV lineage 2
and was very homologous to 2 strains previously found in goshawks in Hungary in 2004 and 2005.
In particular, we retrieved sequences included in the envelope (E) gene of 38 WNV isolates: 18 lineage 1 strains representative of all of the proposed type 1 subtypes, including one Kunjin virus isolate (5), and 20 lineage 2
strains, including the original 1937 isolate from Uganda (6,7).