Moreover, hMGL binds to the group of filoviruses and to gonorrhea (via lipooligosaccharides
) leading to altered DC cytokine secretion profiles and stimulation of CD4+ Th responses (Table 1) [77, 126, 127].
. J Biol Chem, 1983; 258: 10481-10487.
The surface of NTHi is covered with lipooligosaccharide
(LOS) endotoxins that lack a repeating "O side chain." Instead, the LOS glycoforms--which are different in terms of their length, content, and the nature of their chemical linkages--include antigenic structures similar to host cell-surface glycolipids; they may also contain the host membrane constituents sialic acid and phosphorylcholine.
(1,4) H parainfluenzae incorporates lipooligosaccharide
onto its surface, which functions as the primary virulence determinant produced by the bacteria.
Affinity-purified human immunoglobulin G that binds a lacto-N-neotetraose-dependent lipooligosaccharide
structure is bactericidal for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis.
Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide
is a potent inducer of both pathways .
Stephens, "Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide
structure-dependent activation of the macrophage CD14/Toll-like receptor 4 pathway," Infection and Immunity, vol.
(2004) Carbohydrate mimicry between human ganglioside GM1 and Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide
causes Guillain-Barre syndrome.
We have shown that NTHi strains collected from patients with invasive disease more frequently incorporate galactose to heptose III in the lipooligosaccharide
; this modification decreases binding of IgM and thereby increases resistance to complement-mediated killing (29).
(LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive antibodies to peripheral nerve gangliosides.
Infection susceptibility and colonization mechanisms of gonococcus have been studied using different models that have determined that gonococcal membrane components, such as Pili, Opa, and lipooligosaccharide
(LOS), are highly relevant to infection .
Approximately half (n = 56) of the isolates had mutations, which potentially resulted in an underacylated lipid A moiety of lipooligosaccharide
and belonged mainly to either ST-1655 (30 [54%]) or ST-23 (18 [32%]).