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References in periodicals archive ?
Role of cytokines, endotoxins (LPS), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in endodontic infection.
These products (LPS, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, flagellin, and bacterial DNA) are ligands for TLRs and stimulate the innate immune system in the liver (Figure 1).
Peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induce tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 production in both T cells and monocytes in a human whole blood model.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptpcoccus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved.
To test the effects of SDS, urea, guanidine hydrochloride, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), NaN3, and metal ions on Tg-Hb peroxidase activity, related materials dissolved in 50 mM acetic acid buffer (pH 5.0) at different concentrations were incubated with purified Tg-Hbs for 2h at 25[degrees] C, and peroxidase activities were then measured.
Lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-a production in THP-1 cells and endotoxin shock in mice.
The pyrogenic activity of lipoteichoic acid could be detected down to a concentration of less than 1 [micro]g/ml.
The cell wall components peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus act in synergy to cause shock and multiple organ failure.
Bacteria in the plaque, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid, interacts with toll-like receptor in epithelial cells, leukocytes and fibroblasts, stimulates the production of cytokines such as IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)5.
Lipoteichoic acid is a substance created and present in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria.
Recently, bacterial polysaccharides including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid have been shown to induce maturation and activation of DC via the toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, in addition to producing numerous proinflammatory cytokines (Michelsen et al., 2001; Geisel et al., 2007; Yanagawa and Onoe, 2007).
It was found that a staphylococcal cell wall constituent called staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) inhibits skin inflammation.