14 "On Allegory: Vizma Belsevica's Poem 'The Notations of Henricus de Lettis in the Margins of the Livonian
Chronicle'," Lituanus, 16:1 (1970), p.
13 William Urban, The Livonian
Crusade (Washington, D.
Middendorff eventually bought his own estate in Livonia in 1850 and continued to pursue his interest in the complex issues of Livonian
agricultural policy, the regulations of which were mainly in favour of the interests of Baltic German landlords.
The last Master of the Livonian
Order, Gotthard Kettler, was now the first hereditary Duke of Courland and Semigallia under the Polish-Lithuanian rule, and the royal governor in Livonia proper in 1562-1566, before he was forced to resign from office on suspicion of attempting to create new alliances and pursue independent policies, and lost his influence.
The Vormsi--Pirgu transition in the Livonian
Tongue is marked by the disappearance of a specific fauna of small lingulates and few rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Onniella and Chonetoidea) in the black shales (Fjacka Formation) of the Vormsi Age.
The topic of the thesis is relevant and scientifically significant, because the previous studies on the Livonian
language certainly deserve to be expanded in several aspects.
Bearing in mind these descriptions we can state that pendants derive most possibly from the 17th century, when the official Reformation was already received but the desolation by the Livonian
War instigated the emergence of some unofficial religious practices.
The trilobites clearly point to direct connections with the Central Baltoscandian Belt via its Livonian
Tongue rather than with the Ural belt, where asaphids are notably poorly represented, particularly in the Kundan.
And fragility there was in the decades running up to the late 1590s, when the Rurikovich dynasty became extinct: the stresses of the ultimately unsuccessful Livonian
War (1558-83), the horrors of Ivan the Terribles oprichnina (1565-72), and the gradual subjugation of a big percentage of the population to forced labor of various forms.
branch of the Teutonic Order, built on the remains of the Swordbrethren, were seriously defeated in a battle against the Samogitians on September 22nd 1236, among others losing the wilful Master Volquin.
The size of the population in the Kolga-Jaani region was significantly affected by the plague and the attacks in 1212 AD (Tarvel 1993), the Livonian
War (1582-1623 AD), and the Northern War (1700-1721 AD).
With ambitious young rivals butting up against its territories in the east (Muscovy) and southwest (Poland), and with the ever-aggressive Ordenstaat of the Livonian
Knights on the north and the even more dangerous Teutonic Order to the west "we know no pope but the sword," in their own words), pagan Lithuania not only managed to survive but waxed in power and influence and territory, positioning itself to become, after its reconversion to Christianity, a premier power in the area; a Lithuanian-polish state would declare itself and be recognized as a major player here for three hundred years, until the end of the seventeenth century.