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References in periodicals archive ?
In Figure 1, we simulated the concentrations likely to have resulted from the two loading doses based on known digoxin population pharmacokinetics (MM-USC-PACK; University of Southern California, www.lapk.org).
During the process, an infusion dose of 0.1 [micro][g.sup.-1] [kg.sup.-1] min was administered without loading dose by taking into consideration the fact that hypotension may occur with bolus doses.
Responders Nonresponders (n = 204) (n = 40) P (a) Mean (SD) age, years 65.9 (10.5) 69.5 (10.0) NS (b) Sex, n (%) Men 159 (78) 19 (48) 0.0002 Women 45 (22) 21 (53) 0.0002 Diagnosis, n (%) Stable angina 148 (73) 28 (70) NS Unstable angina 8 (4) 3 (8) NS NSTEMI 28 (14) 6 (15) NS STEMI 20 (10) 3 (8) NS Clopidogrel loading dose, n (%) 0 mgc 17 (8) 7 (18) NS 150 mg 2 (1) NA 225 mg 1 (0.5) NA 300 mg 73 (36) 19 (48) NS 450 mg 20 (10) 2 (5) NS 600 mg 91 (45) 12 (30) NS (a) Significance was calculated by use of the Fisher exact test for all variables except age (Mann-Whitney U-test).
Another unblinded, multicenter study focused on intramuscular loading doses of fosphenytoin using 21-23 gauge needles in single-site (28 patients, 47%) and multiple-site injections (32 patients, 53%) with volumes ranging from 9 mL to 30 mL at single sites and 7 mL to 30 mL at multiple sites (Ramsay et al., 1997).
Two hundred fifty-four patients received a low loading dose of clopidogrel (LLDC) and 145 received a high loading dose of clopidogrel (HLDC).
TABLE 1 Preventing phenytoin intoxication at loading (independent of pharmacokinetics of elimination) Toxicity risk Preventive action Complications Avoid excessive infusion rate of intravenous (maximum, 50 mg/min); monitor infusion blood pressure and ECG; assure good IV placement Overload Calculate dose by formula, best estimate of prior level Loading formula: to increase the phenytoin serum level by point (1 [micro]g/mL or mg/L), the loading dose should be 0.75 mg/kg.
These doctors compared the speed of onset of action when using the standard dose with a loading dose of twice the appropriate amount.
* An alternative regimen is an intravenous loading dose of 24 mg/kg quinidine salt (equivalent to 15 mg/kg quinidine base) infused over 4 hours, followed by a maintenance infusion of 12 mg/kg of quinidine gluconate salt (equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg quinidine base) infused over 4 hours every 8 hours, starting 8 hours after the loading dose [2].
Displacement of phenytoin is at its highest level when high loading doses of fosphenytoin are infused at high rates.
This included one dose cohort that received 10 mg once daily and four dose cohorts that followed a schedule of once or twice-weekly maintenance dosing preceded by a five-day loading dose regimen at doses of up to 30 mg per dose.
In all three studies, patients were randomised to receive once-monthly placebo, Emgality 120 mg after an initial loading dose of 240 mg, or Emgality 240 mg.
A 2,000 mg loading dose of ibalizumab was infused into patients after a seven-day control period in which patients continued to receive their current therapy; the viral load was quantified seven days later.