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LHBFLynde and Harry Bradley Foundation
LHBFLong Head of Biceps Femoris (orthopedics)
LHBFLocal Hepatic Blood Flow
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The quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis) and the hamstring (long head of biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus) of the left leg were manually segmented [Figure 1], avoiding muscle fasciae and large vessels.
The short head of biceps femoris, overlaid and fused with the long head of biceps femoris, forms the lateral border (Figure 3).
An estimation of the length changes of the biarticular hip-extensor and knee-flexor muscle-tendon complexes (long head of biceps femoris, semi-tendinosus, and semi-membranosus) was made using expressions for the effect of knee and hip joint rotation derived from direct measurement of 10 female and male cadavers (Kippers, 1990).
Electromyographic (EMG) data were collected from 20 subjects by placing surface electrode units (QANTEC, Queensland, Australia) over seven muscles: the medial head of gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, long head of biceps femoris, medial hamstring group, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae at the level of L3.
Edema scores for gluteus maximus, long head of biceps femoris, and semimembranosus were significantly higher in IMNM than in MADD (all P = 0.000).
Muscle edema appeared mainly in the gluteus maximus (3.00 [2.00, 4.00]), adductor magnus (2.50 [1.75, 3.25]), long head of biceps femoris (2.50 [1.75, 4.00]), and semimembranosus (2.00 [1.00, 3.00]) [Figure 3]d.
It is hypothesised that force generated in the long head of biceps femoris affects sacrotuberous ligament tension, thereby dynamically influencing the sacroiliac joint.
A review of anatomical texts revealed that many other muscles and ligaments are also associated with the sacrotuberous ligament, implying that the long head of biceps femoris does not necessarily act in isolation.
The association between the long head of biceps femoris and the sacrotuberous ligament is well established, but it should be noted that this association is only partial.
In five cases of simultaneous injury, De Smet and Best (2000) reported the long head of biceps femoris as the primary site of injury with semitendinosus being the secondary site of injury (Table 1).
In cases where the hamstring muscles are injured simultaneously it appears that the long head of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles are most commonly involved.
From the reviewed studies only a few definitive answers can be made in response to the question 'where do hamstring strains occur?' The results of these studies indicate that the biceps femoris muscle, more particularly the long head of biceps femoris, is most commonly injured.