Therefore, the sea surface, due to its temperature, sends out the radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves with long wave length, for the atmosphere, also, sends long-wave radiation
, part of which called returning radiation reaches the ocean surface.
where, [[??].sub.condu.] (W [Btu/h]) is the conduction heat flux in the house construction; [[??].sub.radi.] (W [Btu/h]) is the net long-wave radiation
between this exterior surface and surrounding radiation sources, such as other buildings, the sky, and so on; [[??].sub.solar] (W [Btu/h]) is the solar radiation incident on this surface; and [[??].sub.conv.] (W [Btu/h]) is the convective heat transfer energy between this exterior surface and the outdoor air
Regarding the treatment of the radiation effect on the exterior surface, WUFI uses an explicit balance of the long-wave radiation
, defining the surface emission, [I.sub.e], and the radiation reaching the facade, [I.sub.l].
where [R.sub.n] is the surface net radiation, [R.sup.S.sub.n] is the short wave radiation, [R.sup.l.sub.n] is the long-wave radiation
, a is the land surface albedo, [F.sup.S.sub.d] is the downward shortwave radiation, e is the land surface emissivity, [F.sup.l.sub.d] is the downward long-wave radiation
, and T is the land surface temperature.
To calculate the long-wave radiation
from the atmosphere, the approach proposed in Kuzmin (1961) was used:
Comparing the two situations, real and virtual, the increase in building height decreases the value and the emission time of maximum long-wave radiation
at the point on the asphalt (Figure 7).
The coating has a low thermal receptivity, thus its temperature quickly reacts to the solar radiation, long-wave radiation
from the sky and other climatic impacts.
And there is only one form of heat leaving the planet, and that is radiative heat (which is invisible, or what physicists call long-wave radiation
That can be changed by adding heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere - the so-called greenhouse gases, which absorb long-wave radiation
on its way out and send some of it back towards the surface.
The first issue covered a wide range of relatively narrow-scoped papers: long-term changes in the sea ice regime and safety of icebound shipping, the experimental investigation of the structure of breaking wave boundary layers, the characteristics of contemporary wind measurements, the statistics of extreme wet and dry weather conditions, and the time series of the outgoing long-wave radiation
. The second issue was more focused on oceanography but still presented a selection of examples of research on discrete problems.
The glass has an additional low-E coating comprised of an invisible metallic coating, which reflects long-wave radiation
. Essentially, heat that tries to escape from the house is reflected back in, warming the surface of the glass twice, thus, doubling the insulation value.
The atmosphere absorbs thus some of the long-wave radiation
, emitted by the earth, and radiates energy back to it.