Abbreviations AIP: Autoimmune pancreatitis CA 19-9: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 CEA: Carcinoembryonic antigen CEMIP: Cell migration-inducing hyaluronan binding protein C4BPA: C4b-binding protein a-chain IGFBP2,3: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein ChP: 2,3 Z., J Chronic pancreatitis M2-PK: M2-pyruvate kinase MIC-1: Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 PDAC: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ctDNA: Circulating tumor DNA cfDNA: Circulating free DNA or also cell-free DNA CTCs: Circulating tumor cells IgG4: Immunoglobulin G4 miRNA: Micro-RNA ncRNA: Noncoding RNA lncRNA: Long noncoding RNA KRAS: Kirsten rat sarcoma PanINs: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms.
Siriwardena, "Evaluation of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (Tumor M2-PK) as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer," World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol.
Traditional biomarkers CA 19-9, CEA Proteomics CEMIP, C4BPA, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 Metabolites M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK), palmitic acid, glucitol, xylitol, inositol, histidine, proline, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, isocitrate, ceramide Antibodies immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Cytokines interleukin-1[beta], interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor (macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 [MIC-1]) Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) microRNAs (miRNAs), small ncRNAs (sncRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) Liquid biopsy circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulation tumor DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes Body fluids detecting biomarkers from saliva, urine, stool or pancreatic juice
High fecal M2-PK levels also were demonstrated in children with active UC .
 directly compared M2-PK and calprotectin in assessing the severity and activity of paediatric IBD.
Sherwood, "Fecal M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK): a novel marker of intestinal inflammation," Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol.
Herzig, "Fecal pyruvate kinase (M2-PK): a new predictor for inflammation and severity of pouchitis," Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
Ayling, "Fecal dimeric M2-pyruvate kinase (tumor M2-PK) in the differential diagnosis of functional and organic bowel disorders," Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol.
To estimate the potential impact of degradation of tumor M2-PK on the diagnostic accuracy of the test, results of stability testing were used in combination with fecal tumor M2-PK activities measured in 65 CRC patients (26 with colon cancer and 39 with rectal cancer) and in 917 unselected older adults.
The theoretical tumor M2-PK activity after n days of storage at room temperature was estimated as the relative activity after n days multiplied by the initial activity in CRC patients (to determine sensitivity) and of ESTHER study participants (to determine specificity).
Overall, 13 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (initial tumor M2-PK activity [greater than or equal to] 4 kU/L).
The potential impact of tumor M2-PK degradation on test performance characteristics is shown in Table 1.