With the establishment of MACSOG, the USAF assumed an "ever expanding and increasingly large role in support of unconventional warfare operations." (12) This included PSYOP, an element embedded in much of the unconventional activity.
Consequently, "for PSYOP missions," MACSOG "obtained approval for the use of American C-123 crews." (14) It also hastened to train Vietnamese crews, "to get rid of the Chinese crews." (15) This aligned with pressures coming from policy makers in Washington who sought to get the mission going with Vietnamese utilized.
While MACSOG judged the Vietnamese crews as "at least as good as that of the Chinese," it found them "more difficult to control." It observed that the Vietnamese "seemed to feel that they were doing us a favor when they went on a mission." They did not see it from a "nationalist point of view." (17) Due to its "hardship," MACSOG terminated the VNAF training program in 1966 with "minimal impact on operations." (18)
On November 3,1966, MACSOG first utilized its newly arrived Combat Spear aircraft, modified C--130s, to execute a PSYOP mission.
Three American units came to be designated as almost exclusively supporting MACSOG operations over the DRV and, as the program expanded, Cambodia and Laos.