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In our phylogenetic analysis, the MAGV isolates we examined form 2 distinct clades: 1 contains the prototype strain BeAr7272 and "PLAV" (strain 75V5758), the other comprises the AG83-1746 strain and the CbaAr426 strain (Figure 2).
Our divergence analysis comparing the 2 groups formed by the isolates originally identified as MAGV showed 95.7% (N), 84.3%-85.2% (GPC), and 90.1%-90.7% (L) amino acid divergence.
In contrast to these various misidentified viruses, the OBS6657 isolate clearly grouped with the prototype MAGV strain BeAr7272 and showed 100% (N), 97.1% (GPC), and 99.0% (L) amino acid identity, respectively, across each of the three major gene products, despite being isolated >40 years later.
To obtain sufficient data to provide a reliable framework for analyzing the MAGV isolates in this study, and in light of their recently demonstrated potential as human pathogens, we further conducted full-genome sequence analysis for several CVV strains and for the closely related PLAV and TLAV, and for the human pathogenic FSV, which also has been described to be closely related to CVV (35).
The isolate cross-reacted very closely with CVV, MAGV, and PLAV virus in complement fixation but only with CVV and PLAV by plaque-reduction neutralization test (37).
One important consequence of the genetic reassignment of not only TLAV and PLAV, but also of MAGV (CoAr3363) to the CVV group, and identification of FSV as a previously unrecognized CVV reassortant, is to substantially expand the known geographic range of CVV.
Our analysis of the ORF and amino acid data identified several distinct clades representing CVV (lineages 1 and 2) and 2 separate clades of what had been identified as MAGV strains (Figure 2).
Surprisingly, a recent report showed that a virus isolate originally reported as MAGV was, in fact, a reassortant of Caraparu, a group C virus (4), which is genetically only distantly related to the Bunyamwera serogroup viruses.
In summary, we identified MAGV as the causative agent of a human febrile infection in Peru and showed that the virus associated with this infection is highly similar to the prototype MAGV isolate, suggesting that other viruses of this lineage also might have pathogenic potential in humans.