(1996) study, outcomes assessed on the basis of the MAKSS
demonstrated increased levels of perceived multicultural competencies and were sustained at a 1-year follow-up.
The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (MAKSS
) (D'Andrea, Daniels, & Heck, 1990) was used to measure the level of multicultural expertise of the research participants.
is a 60-item survey that assesses the subject's multicultural awareness, skills, and knowledge.
The survey packet consisted of the consent to participate form, a demographic sheet, and the MAKSS
Hypothesis 1: The results of the MAKSS
will indicate that the group leader in The color of fear (Mun Wah, 1994) demonstrates more multicultural competency than do the leaders in Evolution of a group (Corey, Corey, & Haynes, 2000).
. The MAKSS
(D'Andrea et al., 1991) is a 33-item scale that measures students' perceptions of the effects of instructional strategies on their multicultural counseling development.
was mailed to participants prior to the training.
In 1994, Joseph Ponterotto and colleagues conducted the first narrative review of multicultural competency instrumentation, including the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994), the Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised (CCCI-R; LaFromboise et al., 1991), the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale: Form B (MCAS: B; Ponterotto et al., 1996), and the Multicultural Awareness Knowledge Skills Scale (MAKSS
; D'Andrea, Daniels, & Heck, 1991).
* Multicultural Awareness Knowledge Skills Survey (MAKSS
; D'Andrea, Daniels, & Heck, 1991)
In the early 1990s, three geographically dispersed research teams, working independently, developed the following self-report instruments: the Multicultural Awareness/Knowledge/Skills Survey (MAKSS
; D'Andrea, Daniels, & Heck, 1991) in Hawaii, the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, 1996; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) in Nebraska, and the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS; Ponterotto et al., 1996; Ponterotto, Sanchez, & Magids, 1991) in New York.
Since the early 1990s, several multicultural competency surveys have been developed: the Multicultural Awareness-Knowledge-and-Skills Survey (MAKSS
) by D'Andrea et al., (1991); the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale: Form B (MCAS) by Ponterotto, Sanchez, and Magids (as cited in Ponterotto, Rieger, Barrett, & Sparks, 1994); the Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised (CCCI-R) by LaFromboise, Coleman, and Hernandez (1991); the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) by Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, and Wise (1994); and the Survey of Graduate Students' Experiences with Diversity (GSEDS) by Talbot (1992).
was originally developed to evaluate graduate-level counselor education programs.