where KKK denotes MAPKKK, KK denotes MAPKK
, and K denotes MAPK and tags p and pp indicate phosphorylation and double phosphorylation, respectively.
In the former MAPK cascade, ASK1 is an upstream MAPKKK that regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), leading to apoptosis via phosphorylation of MKK4, MKK3, and MKK6 MAPKKs
. ASK1 is activated by OS and mediates p38 signaling, which leads to differentiation and immune signaling.
The first--that is, most upstream--level is composed of a group of serine-threonine kinases, generically designated as MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), that homodimerize upon activation and phosphorylate a group of downstream dual-specificity serine/ threonine-tyrosine kinases, namely the MAPK kinases (MAPKKs
elegans JNK pathway, consisting of JKK-1 (a MKK7-type MAPKK
) and JNK-1 (a JNK-type MAPK), regulates coordinated movement via type D GABAergic (GABA: [gamma]-aminobutyric acid) motor neurons and also plays a role in synaptic vesicle transport.
LF is a zinc-dependent protease which can cleave several members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK
) family causing lysis of macrophages .
Em ambas as celulas, a MAPK e ativada pela fosforilacao dos residuos de tirosina e treonina pela MEK, tambem designada MAPKK
(proteina quinase ativadora da MAPK).
Most of these somatic variations occur in the kinase domain of B-Raf encoded by exons 11 and 15 of the gene (6,10) and are thought to act by directly increasing the constitutive kinase activity toward its downstream targets MAPKK
(mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), although other indirect mechanisms exist (11,12).
MAPKs are unusual in that they require dual threonine/ tyrosine activation for maximal activation; the enzymes responsible for this activation themselves share common features and are known as MAPK kinases (MAPKK
coli heat-stable toxin; TCR, T-cell receptor; MHC II, major histocompatibility complex class II; MAPKK
, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; VAMP, vesicle-associated membrane protein; SNAP-25, synaptosomal-associated protein; UTI, urinary tract infection; HC, hemorrhagic colitis; HUS, hemolytic uremic syndrome; PC, antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis; SSS, scalded skin syndrome; SF, scarlet fever; TSS, toxic-shock syndrome.
Extracellular signals act through cell surface receptors such as RTKs and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to successive phosphorylation and activation of a three-layered hierarchical model including MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK
), and MAPK.
Expression of a number of protein kinases such as histidine kinase, MAPKKK, MAPKK
, and MAPK increases in tobacco cells in response to osmotic stress .
Effect of Buckwheat Sprouts on MAPK and MAPK Kinase (MAPKK
) Phosphorylation in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.