MAPKKMap Kinase Kinase
MAPKKMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase
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where KKK denotes MAPKKK, KK denotes MAPKK, and K denotes MAPK and tags p and pp indicate phosphorylation and double phosphorylation, respectively.
In the former MAPK cascade, ASK1 is an upstream MAPKKK that regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), leading to apoptosis via phosphorylation of MKK4, MKK3, and MKK6 MAPKKs. ASK1 is activated by OS and mediates p38 signaling, which leads to differentiation and immune signaling.
The first--that is, most upstream--level is composed of a group of serine-threonine kinases, generically designated as MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), that homodimerize upon activation and phosphorylate a group of downstream dual-specificity serine/ threonine-tyrosine kinases, namely the MAPK kinases (MAPKKs).
elegans JNK pathway, consisting of JKK-1 (a MKK7-type MAPKK) and JNK-1 (a JNK-type MAPK), regulates coordinated movement via type D GABAergic (GABA: [gamma]-aminobutyric acid) motor neurons and also plays a role in synaptic vesicle transport.
LF is a zinc-dependent protease which can cleave several members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family causing lysis of macrophages [7].
Em ambas as celulas, a MAPK e ativada pela fosforilacao dos residuos de tirosina e treonina pela MEK, tambem designada MAPKK (proteina quinase ativadora da MAPK).
Most of these somatic variations occur in the kinase domain of B-Raf encoded by exons 11 and 15 of the gene (6,10) and are thought to act by directly increasing the constitutive kinase activity toward its downstream targets MAPKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), although other indirect mechanisms exist (11,12).
MAPKs are unusual in that they require dual threonine/ tyrosine activation for maximal activation; the enzymes responsible for this activation themselves share common features and are known as MAPK kinases (MAPKK).
coli heat-stable toxin; TCR, T-cell receptor; MHC II, major histocompatibility complex class II; MAPKK, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; VAMP, vesicle-associated membrane protein; SNAP-25, synaptosomal-associated protein; UTI, urinary tract infection; HC, hemorrhagic colitis; HUS, hemolytic uremic syndrome; PC, antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis; SSS, scalded skin syndrome; SF, scarlet fever; TSS, toxic-shock syndrome.
Extracellular signals act through cell surface receptors such as RTKs and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to successive phosphorylation and activation of a three-layered hierarchical model including MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPK.
Expression of a number of protein kinases such as histidine kinase, MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK increases in tobacco cells in response to osmotic stress [11].