where KKK denotes MAPKKK
, KK denotes MAPKK, and K denotes MAPK and tags p and pp indicate phosphorylation and double phosphorylation, respectively.
TFs such as bZIP and NF-Y and kinases such as MAPK and MAPKKK
, coexpressed significantly with HSPs in HKI1532 (Figure 7(c)), are involved in the degradation of unfolded proteins.
The first--that is, most upstream--level is composed of a group of serine-threonine kinases, generically designated as MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK
), that homodimerize upon activation and phosphorylate a group of downstream dual-specificity serine/ threonine-tyrosine kinases, namely the MAPK kinases (MAPKKs).
This may include stress protein which regulate in signaling pathways such as MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK
), the MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and the MAPK were involve in the regulation of transcription factors that activate genes needed for stress adaptation, specifically in the context of heavy metals, triggered genes for the activation of metal transporters and the biosynthesis of chelating compounds .
A MAPK cascade consists of three classes of protein kinases: MAPK, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK
Since CTN was considered as inhibiting LPS-triggered MAPKs and NF-[kappa]B activation, we consequently evaluated the phosphorylation of TAK1, a member of the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK
) family, which phosphorylates MAPKs (Abraham 2003; Frobose et al.
Studies showed that ASK1 was activated by the action of TNF-[alpha] , indicating that TNF-[alpha] in turn activates the p38 MAPK signaling pathway through the activation of MAPKKK
upstream of p38 MAPK .
el complejo IKK no es aun concreto, pero se ha propuesto que MAPKKK
(21,22) MAPKs are phosphorylated and activated by MAPK-kinases (MAPKKs or MAP2Ks), which in turn are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKK-kinases (MAPKKK
"Tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 positively regulates immunity-associated programmed cell death by enhancing protein abundance and signaling ability of MAPKKK
The most important is dlk-1A[sup.1] which is known as a "MAP kinase kinase kinase" or MAPKKK
In turn, a series of MAPKK kinases (MAPKKK
) stand at the head of these similar signaling cascades.