TYPE A: The marfu is a reference to an entity other than a personal pronoun (Polotsky's "Constructions I" and "II" [note 16]).
TYPE B: The marfu is a personal pronoun, as expressed by the gender and number ending of the participle (Polotsky's "Construction III," a derivative of "II" [note 16]).
TYPE C: There is no marfu. The verb form is "impersonal" (Polotsky 1978: 170-73).
"with sick eyes" muhaliti-ha s-saqamu "with which illness blends" (Sibawayhi l 194,6; after Reckendorf 1921: [section]203.1).(17) The marfu is as-saqamu.
There is no participial equivalent of the type na t haqiqi for finite verb forms with a marfu that is not a personal pronoun or its equivalent.
According to Polotsky (1978: 167), "[i]t is a moot question what function the markers of the 3rd persons singular of finite verb-forms fulfill when they are followed by an explicit substantival actor"; "the question does not arise when no substantival actor is present." According to Beeston (1978: 62-63), "[a]ny participle, just like a finite verb, implies an anaphoric subject-pronoun unless an explicit marfu follows." It appears to Polotsky that the question is immaterial.
The Arabic equivalent is marfu. In the active voice, the entity undergoing the action immediately follows verb and actor, as md t does in the generic example jw d(y).n.j md t n jt.j "I have given a book to my father"; special rules of word order apply with enclitic elements such as the dependent pronouns and the preposition n "to, for" plus suffix pronoun (for details, see the appendix to Depuydt 1996a).
The nominative case marks hada l-qawlu unambiguously as "subject" or marfu. Sethe's interpretation of rdjj n.f wrrt is completely Arabicizing.
How can sw be explained as "subject" in the manner that abu-hu, in the nominative case, is marfu or "subject" in ar-rajulu l-maqtulu abu-hu, for it is the suffix pronoun, not the dependent pronoun, that is used everywhere else to refer to the "subject" in Egyptian?
The distinctive characteristic of "Construction III" is that the marfu ("subject") is pronominal, as expressed by the gender and number ending of the participle, for example -atu "she" in an-na imatu above.