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MARSISMars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding
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This figure shows 41 MARSIS AIS electron density profiles from four representative Mars Express orbits across four panels.
The maximum thermal pressure at Mars has been calculated from the plasma scale height of the MARSIS AIS profiles as in Sanchez-Cano et al.
Authors acknowledge Mars Express MARSIS PIs for making data accessible.
Mars ionosphere total electron content analysis from MARSIS subsurface data.
The processing of electron density profiles from the Mars Express MARSIS topside sounder.
Dayside ionosphere of Mars: Empirical model based on data from the MARSIS instrument.
The team used MARSIS to survey 14% of the northern lowlands.
More recently, a shift in Mars Express's orbit has allowed MARSIS to probe the planet's south pole.
MARSIS finds that multiple layers are stacked beneath Dorsa Argentea to depths of up to 500 meters--and if they're all ice they represent a reservoir large enough to cover the entire planet with water to a depth of about 10 meters (30 feet).
MARSIS can't determine whether buried ice lies very close to the surface.
MARSIS also saw strong evidence of an ancient, 250-km-wide impact crater hidden under the mid-latitude Chryse Planitia region.
Known as the solar wind, this constant stream of particles provides the source of electrons to generate the aurorae, as suggested by MARSIS and ASPERA.