The congestion-reduction benefit of variable MBUFs is often noted.
Although these are core benefits, MBUFs are appealing for several additional reasons, which include: (1) creating sustainable, long-term transportation system funding; (2) divorcing charges for use of road space from fuel type used, which makes road charges independent of evolving engine technology; (3) adopting the basic fairness principle that motorists who use roads should pay for them, which enhances equity; (4) allowing scarce road space to be allocated to motorists who value it most highly at that particular time of day; and (5) encouraging commuters to explore travel alternatives during peak times by providing current toll prices.
Analysts have attributed the limited use of MBUFs in the United States to motorists' opposition to new rates and fees.
A new approach is needed for gaining taxpayers' acceptance of better infrastructure-funding solutions such as MBUFs. Federal, state, and local policymakers should focus carefully on facilitating movement toward direct user charges that have long been recognized as the key to numerous transportation-policy problems.
Although the academic community broadly agrees that system-wide MBUFs are desirable, they are challenging to implement.
Variable MBUFs reduce traffic congestion by shifting demand to off-peak times while generating additional revenue for much-needed facility maintenance and expansion.
Our approach relies on a permanent fund similar to Alaska's to preserve a portion of the large payments generated by adopting MBUFs on existing US roadways.
It facilitates adoption of variable MBUFs by allowing citizens of the relevant jurisdiction to benefit from the value released by road pricing, which is currently trapped in their infrastructure.
Variable MBUFs help mitigate traffic congestion and create substantial new revenue to maintain infrastructure.
Analysts have generally attributed the limited use of MBUFs in the United States to motorists' opposition to new rates and fees.
The BSD network subsystem was adapted by encapsulating IO-Lite buffers inside the BSD-native buffer abstraction, mbufs
. This approach avoids intrusive and widespread source code modifications.
Description of Boring Procedures Shown in Timeline Traces Procedure Description thread_setrun, Thread scheduling and memory management thread_continue, thread_block, switch_context, pmap_activate, get_thread_high malloc, Memory allocation free m_leadingspace, Mbuf
manipulation m_freem, m_free, m_copym lninitdesc, LANCE (Ethernet) driver lnget arpresolve_local ARP layer ip_forwardscreen, IP layer in_canforward, in_broadcast, gw_forwardscreen bzero, Bulk memory operations bcopy From Figures 11 and 12, one might conclude that with polling enabled, the kernel saves about 30 [micro]sec., mostly between the initial interrupt and the invocation of ipinput().