Although these are core benefits, MBUFs are appealing for several additional reasons, which include: (1) creating sustainable, long-term transportation system funding; (2) divorcing charges for use of road space from fuel type used, which makes road charges independent of evolving engine technology; (3) adopting the basic fairness principle that motorists who use roads should pay for them, which enhances equity; (4) allowing scarce road space to be allocated to motorists who value it most highly at that particular time of day; and (5) encouraging commuters to explore travel alternatives during peak times by providing current toll prices.
Analysts have attributed the limited use of MBUFs in the United States to motorists' opposition to new rates and fees.
A new approach is needed for gaining taxpayers' acceptance of better infrastructure-funding solutions such as MBUFs. Federal, state, and local policymakers should focus carefully on facilitating movement toward direct user charges that have long been recognized as the key to numerous transportation-policy problems.
Although the academic community broadly agrees that system-wide MBUFs are desirable, they are challenging to implement.
Although Oregon recently debuted a system-wide MBUF program (Morris 2015), road pricing is most often utilized on new lanes, such as high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes, or on conversions from high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) to HOT lanes.
It facilitates adoption of variable MBUFs by allowing citizens of the relevant jurisdiction to benefit from the value released by road pricing, which is currently trapped in their infrastructure.
Variable MBUFs help mitigate traffic congestion and create substantial new revenue to maintain infrastructure.
Analysts have generally attributed the limited use of MBUFs in the United States to motorists' opposition to new rates and fees.
A new approach to gaining taxpayer acceptance of new, reliable infrastructure-funding sources such as MBUFs is needed.
The IP3 approach helps address the policy shortcomings of the current approach while demonstrating clearly to motorists the benefits of MBUFs in funding roads, mitigating congestion, and directing transportation investment to its highest-valued use.
P3s facilitate the implementation of MBUFs on specific facilities and offer all the benefits associated with them, without the need for taxpayer-provided funding.