She returned to New Zealand in 2003 to work for MCDEM.
Stuart-Black said MCDEM was a comparatively small agency of about 40 people, but all "were passionate about making a difference to to the lives of people in our country, to helping fulfil the vision of a resilient New Zealand and becoming a world leader in emergency management".
As eruptions can occur anywhere within the AVF, and the location may not be known until magma is very close to the surface, emergency management decisions will be typified by a high degree of uncertainty due to the eruption timing, location, severity, hazards, impacts and consequences (Lindsay et al., 2009; MCDEM, 2008b).
The scenario in Exercise Ruaumoko focused on the lead-up to a volcanic eruption in the Auckland metropolitan area, and the exercise was the first full test of the AVSAG advisory process (see reviews in MCDEM, 2008b; McDowell, 2008;
A number of reviews were conducted after Exercise Ruaumoko, both at the National level (MCDEM, 2008b) and at the Auckland Regional Level (McDowell, 2008), identifying that the structure of science advice resulted in it being well delivered, clear, timely and very valuable.
MCDEM, CDEM, emergency and protective services, lifelines, etc.).
Participants were directed to the online survey tool through a snowball approach via email contact with individuals in each organisation, and through advertisement in bulletins and on on-line notice boards, such as the MCDEM e-bulletin, the international 'Volcano Listserv' (run by Arizona State University), the bulletin board of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Research Network (CEMR), and in the Oceania newsletter of the International Association of Emergency Managers.
Under New Zealands civil defence system, local authorities lead civil defence actions, with coordination from regional CDEM groups and national support from MCDEM if required.
This was a significant improvement from the last assessment in 2012, when the national rating was 58.8 per cent, and reflects work being led by MCDEM and regional CDEM groups to strengthen their capabilities.